According to the Jane Tuers legend, Fraunces overheard British soldiers toasting Benedict Arnold, and sent the warning (through Tuers) that Arnold was a traitor. Washington Square Hotel May 22, 2012. Fraunces Tavern was called Black Sam's: British warship HMS Asia bombarded lower Manhattan with cannon fire on August 23, 1775. New York City's Financial District in Vintage Postcards by Randall Gabrielan. Fax: 212-797-1776. :27 Charles Blockson, a Philadelphia local historian, found sources describing Fraunces as "Negro," "coloured," "Haitian Negro," "mulatto," "fastidious old Negro," and "swarthy.  He married Elizabeth Dally at Trinity Church, Manhattan on November 30, 1757. He readily assented to them all (except that respecting Hercules, upon which he made the following observation—'I must first learn Hercules’ abilities & readiness to do things, which if good, (, "The chief cook would have been termed in modern parlance, a celebrated. Philadelphia Register of Wills, Book X (ten), page 348, proven October 22, 1795. Indenture between Samuel Fraunces and Charles Thompson, Secretary of the Continental Congress, April 7, 1785. Beaucoup estiment que le bâtiment actuel n'a presque plus rien d'authentique, en raison des nombreuses restaurations et reconstructions qu'il a connues au fil des siècles1.  Smith later fled to England, where she received a £20 Loyalist pension from the British government. Meanwhile the housekeeper disclosed the plot to the general. Its immediate agent was to be Thomas Hickey, a deserter from the British army, who had become a member of Washington's body guard. ":147–148 Some 19th- and 20th-century sources described Fraunces as "a negro man" (1838), "swarthy" (1878), "mulatto" (1916), "Negro" (1916), "coloured" (1930), "fastidious old Negro" (1934), and "Haitian Negro" (1962), but most of these date from more than a century after his death. "Phoebe Fraunces" does not appear in Samuel Fraunces's will. He was buried in an unmarked grave at St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia. Samuel Fraunces was a patriot. Key Dates in Preservation Activity The minutes of Thomas Hickey's court-martial contain no testimony by a housekeeper. Eddie Travers, proprietor of Fraunces Tavern, raises concerns on ‘Fox & Friends’ as New York City heads toward possible restaurant closures amid the coronavirus pandemic. I like Fraunces Tavern - the museum upstairs is fascinating, especially for history buffs. Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia list Elizabeth Fraunces's birth as December 26, 1765, and her baptism as January 27, 1766.  As Rice noted in her Documentary History of Fraunces Tavern (1985): "Other than the appearance of the nickname, there are no known references where Fraunces was described as a black man" during his lifetime. As debate rallies on for conclusive evidence, the actual truth is that we may never know for sure.  It came from the collection of Anna E. Macy of Riveredge, New Jersey, and was offered for auction at Merwin Sales Company, November 17, 1913. ":128, 132, In a March 5, 1785 memorial (sworn petition) to the U.S. Congress, Fraunces sought compensation for his service to the country in foiling an assassination plot against Washington, supplying provisions to American prisoners, and providing intelligence on British troops:[note 2]. As a reward Washington, when he became President, made Samuel Fraunces, Phoebe's father, his steward.".  The "Black Loyalists" were settled in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone. Fraunces's 1785 sworn petition to Congress documents the 1776 assassination plot against Washington. Book your tickets online for Fraunces Tavern Museum, New York City: See 197 reviews, articles, and 77 photos of Fraunces Tavern Museum, ranked No.114 on Tripadvisor among 1,287 attractions in … :125 There are claims that he was born in Jamaica, Haiti, Martinique, and the possibility that he was related to a Fraunces family in Barbados. This day Mrs Thompson came to keep house for his Excellency General Washington —", seven-year British occupation of New York City, "Biographical Sketch of Captain Samuel Cooper", "Black Samuel Fraunces: Patriot, White House Steward and Restaurateur Par Excellence", New-York Historical Society Publication Fund Series 18, Commissioners of Embarkation at New York to George Washington, January 18, 1784 (note 3), Evacuation Day: New York's Former November Holiday, The President's House Site: Presidents Washington and Adams, President's House Site; Enslaved People in the Washington Household, Tobias Lear to George Washington, May 15, 1791, George Washington to James Germain, June 1, 1794 (note), "Samuel Fraunces in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (b. [note 3] Washington was not entirely satisfied with Fraunces, and dismissed him in February 1790,[note 4] prior to the household's move to the Alexander Macomb House, at 39-41 Broadway. ":72[note 13], Elizabeth Thompson, a 72-year-old widow, became Washington's housekeeper at Richmond Hill on July 9, 1776. The story that Washington had been the target of an assassination plot by poisoning was published in England as early as 1778: "Advise is received from America that two persons, a man and a woman who lived as servants with General Washington, have been executed in the presence of the army for conspiring to poison their master." Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. She revealed the plot to her father, and at an opportune moment the dénouement came. And is it possible that the basement of Fraunces Tavern could have once housed a dungeon? The story of Phoebe Fraunces apparently began in B.J.  Kuhle was researching Frederick the Great and his court painters, Antoine Pesne and Joachim Martin Falbe. , Sociologist W.E.B. For instance, Admiral Richard Lord Howe (1762- 1799), one of Britain’s best known and respected seamen – and a white man – was commonly called 'Black Dick,' a nickname his brother Sir William Howe gave to him as descriptive of the Admiral’s swarthy complexion. [note 8] Andrew G. Fraunces worked in the U.S. Treasury Department until 1793, and published a pamphlet denouncing Alexander Hamilton for his financial dealings. [*]These facts were related to a friend of the writer (Mr. W.J. Photo by Dean Moses. https://www.thestreet.com/video/fraunces-tavern-owner-surviving "I have Sir—the honour of being personally known to your Excellency, being the Daughter of Mr Fraunces, and one that was so happy as to have offers of friendship from you Soon after your arrival in this place." He strongly suspected that Fraunces had been of African descent, but could find no conclusive evidence. ...[W]hat is known of his life indicates he was a white man. Was the tavern owner Samuel Fraunces one of America’s first great black patriots? A New York City restaurant owner said Gov. Après que les Américains obtinrent leur indépendance, George Washington y fit ses adieux à ses officiers, en 1783.  In 1778, he advertised the sale of a 14-year-old male slave. Du Bois to Dr. F.E.  He later exhibited seventy miniature wax figures from the Bible, and life-size wax statues of King George III and Queen Charlotte. Comments. Washington also recorded attending a court-martial there in April of 1… , There is a tradition that Fraunces was of French ancestry and came from the West Indies. The lineage of the man nicknamed ‘Black Sam’ continues to be debated to this day. Fraunces listed his 7 children in his Will. Fraunces exhibited ten life-sized wax statues of historical figures (possibly modeled by him),:36 debuting them in a garden setting in July 1768. Davis), by the late Peter Embury, of New York, who resided in the city at the time, was well acquainted with the general's housekeeper, and was present at the execution of Hickey.:Vol. Portail du Registre national des lieux historiques, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fraunces_Tavern&oldid=168041379, Registre national des lieux historiques à Manhattan, Registre national des lieux historiques en 2008, Page utilisant une adresse fournie par Wikidata, Page pointant vers des bases relatives à l'architecture, Portail:Registre national des lieux historiques/Articles liés, Portail:Protection du patrimoine/Articles liés, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Localisation sur la carte de l’État de New York. "[note 11] Washington approved mass arrests of suspected Loyalists for the night of June 23–24. The location played a prominent role in history before, during, and after the American Revolution. , In 1762 he mortgaged and rented out the Free Mason's Arms, and purchased the Oliver Delancey mansion at Pearl and Dock Streets. [note 15] The fictional 13-year-old Phoebe character is Samuel Fraunces's daughter, and he tells her that he's overheard something about an assassination plot against Washington. There were no deaths, but injuries and damage to buildings, including Fraunces's tavern. ", "It was during this period that Washington first stopped at Fraunces Tavern, Broad and Pearl Streets. He arrived in New York City on April 23, 1789, and took up residence at the Samuel Osgood House, at Cherry and Franklin Streets. Cuomo announced a ban on indoor dining earlier in December, just as winter rolls through the Big Apple. modifier - modifier le code - modifier Wikidata. In the Articles prohibiting the use of wine at his table—and obliging him to be particular in the discharge of his duty in the Kitchen & to perform the Cooking with Hercules—I have been peculiarly pointed.  But thirteen years later she married Atcheson Thompson and, coincidentally, became another "Elizabeth Thompson. History has it that the building at 54 Pearl Street was bought by Samuel Fraunces in . The sentence, by the advice of the whole council of general officers, will be put in execution to-day at eleven o’clock. In this re-telling "Phebe" is identified by the authors (all who claim to be descendants of Samuel Fraunces) as the young Elizabeth Fraunces. That he was their [sic] made Prisoner by the Enemy who after plundering his Family of almost every necessary brought him to the City of New York. Eddie Travers owner of Fraunces Tavern. Established in 1719, Fraunces Tavern was the site of initial meetings of the Chamber of Commerce and Sons of Liberty in 1768. Thomas Hickey, one of Washington's guards, became romantically involved with Phoebe and enlisted her in a plot to poison the general's food. Il n'en reste pas moins que Fraunces Tavern est un lieu important dans l'histoire de la ville. It’s not going to cut it,” the owner said. Phoebe must have loved her country more than she did her sweetheart, for she unhesitatingly went to Washington with the entire story and the traitor was sent to his death.  He returned to New York City in early 1768, and sold the Free Mason's Arms. A few days afterward he was hanged ...:311, The legend was repeated in the 1932 bicentennial celebration of George Washington's birth, although the location of events was switched from Richmond Hill to Fraunces Tavern. "60 percent of us will be gone at the start of next year," says the owner of Fraunces Tavern in New York of Irish bars in the city. Little is known about the famed tavern owner, Samuel Fraunces before the year 1755. The enslaved Africans held in Philadelphia initially were Moll, Oney Judge, Christopher Sheels (Washington's body servant), "Fraunces arrived here on Wednesday [May 11], and after signing his Articles of Agreement—going over the things in the house & signing an inventory thereof, entered upon the duties of his station. Business owner, dedicated patriot, well-known chef, presidential steward; during the late eighteenth century, Samuel Fraunces deftly balanced all of these roles. I think I have made the agreement as full, explicit & binding as any thing of the kind can be. Fraunces Tavern was one of the first buildings to be designated as a New York City Landmark in 1965. Andrew Cuomo’s COVID-19 restaurant restrictions. " She concluded: "The issue of Samuel Fraunces’ racial identity is still a passionate topic of discussion to this very day. , Following his retirement, Fraunces operated a tavern on 2nd Street in Philadelphia for a year. — The Ipswich Journal, October 31, 1778. The illustration was credited: "Sam Fraunces. Till she drove a round ball through the roof of Black Sam. ", "New York. , The ink sketch at the top of this article – undated, inscribed: "from Fraunce [sic] of Fraunces Tavern / J.T.  Samuel Fraunces also was arrested, but released for lack of evidence. The original Fraunces Tavern was built as a house in 1719 for Etienne DeLancey, a member of the prominent Delancey family that contended with the Livingstons for leadership in colonial New York. German historian Arthur Kuhle found a portrait of the same sitter in a Dresden museum in 2017, and suspects that the sitter had been a member of Prussian king Frederick the Great's royal court. Phoebe sees Thomas Hickey sprinkle something on the general's food, and throws a plate of poisoned peas out the window, where chickens eat them and fall down dead. Il n'… The incident that prompted Fraunces's dismissal involved his serving wine to the household staff, contrary to Washington's orders. Hours. 1722 - d. October 10, 1795)" (1958), "Fraunces Tavern Museum, Pre-Visit Materials,", "Artifact Highlight: Sam Fraunces Portrait,", George Washington to Col. James Clinton, 28 June 1776 (note 1), Expenses of Journey to New York, 4–13 April 1776, Expense Account of Journey to and from Philadelphia, 21 May–12 June 1776 (also see note), Revolutionary War Receipt Book, 1776 - 1780 (see note), "Court Martial for the trial of Thomas Hickey and others,", Trinity Church New York, Marriage Records, January 14, 1789, Elizabeth Thompson to George Washington, 18 August 1789, Jane Tuers and Sam Fraunces Depicted by Schoolchildren in 1910, "Simon Schama Should Be Ashamed, & So Should the BBC.". Peace negotiations were held at the DeWint House in Tappan, New York in May 1783, where Fraunces provided meals for General Washington, British General Sir Guy Carleton, and their staffs. , Spring Hill – a villa along the Hudson River under lease to Major Thomas James – was heavily vandalized in the November 1765 Stamp Act Riot.  To one of Custis's anecdotes, Lossing added a footnote describing an assassination attempt on General Washington: When Washington and his army occupied the city in the summer of 1776, the chief resided at Richmond hill, a little out of town, afterward the seat of Aaron Burr. Its presence was a constant threat to the city. The story of the poisoned peas is given as a true family story passed down through the generations. That your Memorialist, being from Principle attached to the Cause of America, removed from the City of New York previous to its being taken Possession of by the British Forces, into Elizabeth Town in the State of New Jersey. Leurs personnages déjeunent devant la cheminée. Under the July 1790 Residence Act, Congress designated Philadelphia the temporary national capital for a 10-year period, while the permanent national capital was under construction in the District of Columbia. Since 1904, Fraunces Tavern has been owned and operated by the Sons of the Revolution as a tavern and colonial museum. "We have also recently acquired the old portrait of Samuel Fraunces, the original proprietor of Fraunces Tavern, which will be an interesting addition to display in the entrance hall. En 1900, les propriétaires de Fraunces Tavern envisagèrent de raser le bâtiment.  Auction catalogue description: "Artist Unknown / Colonial Period / Portrait of Samuel Fraunces / Canvas. :25 From 1758 to 1762, he operated the Free Mason's Arms Tavern at Broadway and Queen Street. In June 1795, he assumed proprietorship of the Tun Tavern, at 59 South Water Street.:133. … Read more. Did Samuel use his position here to spy upon the British during the years of occupation between 1776 and 1783? Eddie Travers, proprietor of Fraunces Tavern, raises concerns on ‘Fox & Friends’ as New York City heads toward possible restaurant closures amid the coronavirus pandemic. DeLancey entama la construction du bâtiment originel en 1719. Fraunces Tavern Museum has American Revolutionary era artifacts, portraits, flags and furnishings on display. , Congress's report on Fraunces's memorial acknowledged his role as "instrumental in discovering and defeating" the assassination plot. Hickey was in jail at the time of the supposed poisoning attempt: "New York Provincial Congress: Die Sabbati [Saturday], A.M. June 15, 1776. Samuel Fraunces had five daughters, but none were named Phoebe. Born in the West Indies, Fraunces immigrated to New York City in 1755. The matter has been traced up to Governor Tryon; and the mayor appears to have been a principal agent or go-between him and the persons concerned in it. That your Memorialist in Consequence of the heavy Advances he has made to American Prisoners (the far greater part of which is not yet Reimbursed) and other solid Proof of his Zeal for the Cause of Freedom, is now reduced to so Critical a Situation as to see himself, his Wife and a numerous Family on the Precipice of Beggary unless the Generous and humane Hand of you Honorable House should be Extended to himself. The plot had been communicated to some of the army, and part of my guard engaged in it. "[note 14], Lossing's Phoebe Fraunces legend was largely forgotten, until it was re-introduced in Judith Berry Griffin's 1977 children's book, Phoebe and the General (later renamed Phoebe the Spy). By his death, Society has sustained the loss of an honest man, and the Poor a valuable friend." Fortunately the conspirator fell desperately in love with Phoebe Fraunces, and made her his confidant. Although the cover calls it a true story, Phoebe and the plate of poisoned peas never existed. Thompson. , General Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown in October 1781, but British forces continued to occupy New York City for more than two years. Was his daughter on hand to prevent an assassination attempt on the life of George Washington? Records of Washington's household [at Richmond Hill] do not list any of Fraunces's children as employees.  Initially, his housekeeper there was a widow named Mary Smith.  The State of New York awarded him £200, and Congress paid $1,625 to lease his tavern for two years to house federal government offices. Fraunces Tavern, New York : consultez 1 444 avis sur Fraunces Tavern, noté 4 sur 5 sur Tripadvisor et classé #638 sur 13 036 restaurants à New York. The peas were given to some hens, in his presence, when they immediately sickened and died. The enslaved Africans held in New York were Moll (nanny for Martha Washington's grandchildren).  The supposed plotter, Thomas Hickey, one of Washington's life-guards, was court-martialed, and executed on June 28: Congress, I doubt not, will have heard of the plot, that was forming among many disaffected persons in this city and government for aiding the King’s troops upon their arrival. Don’t miss the one hour guided tour.  Biographer Kym S. Rice found no 18th-century references to Fraunces having been black: she noted his history as a slaveholder, his inclusion on the voter rolls (limited to white men of property), and his memberships in groups (such as the Masons) that at the time were restricted only to whites. It was also called Queen’s Head Tavern before becoming known as … :78–80, George Washington got to know Fraunces during the Revolutionary War.  He opened this as the Sign of Queen Charlotte Tavern, but within a year it was better known as the Queen's Head Tavern (possibly due to the queen's portrait on a painted sign). W.E.B. Antiquarian Benson J. Lossing popularized the Phoebe Fraunces legend.  The 1790 United States Census for New York listed him as a free white male, with four free white women, and one slave in his household.  They had seven children: Andrew Gautier Fraunces, Elizabeth Fraunces Thompson, Catherine Fraunces Smock, Sophia Fraunces Gomez, Sarah Fraunces Campbell, Samuel M. Fraunces, and Hannah Louisa Fraunces Kelly. The peas were poisoned. [*]Hickey and his associates of the guard, were arrested immediately after dinner, on the twenty-third; and, according to a letter written at New York the next day, "the general's housekeeper was taken up," on suspicion of being an accomplice. , Samuel M. Fraunces, served as executor of his father's estate, and was listed as an "Inn keeper" at 59 South Water Street in the 1795 Philadelphia Directory. iStock. Assertion Discussion; Samuel Fraunces's nickname was "Black Sam" True..This nickname is well-documented. The so-called New York Tea Party was launched from the Tavern, which occurred on April 22, 1774. 2, 175–77; Vol. En 1700, le Colonel Stephanus Van Cortlandt donna sa propriété, qu'il avait bâtie en 1671, à son gendre, Stephen DeLancey (Étienne de Lancy, un Huguenot normand émigré à New York). 59.". Edmund Hogan, ‘’The Prospect of Philadelphia and Check on the Next Directory, Part 1’’, (Philadelphia: Francis & Robert Bailey, 1795), p. 110. Fraunces Tavern is a museum and restaurant in New York City, situated at 54 Pearl Street at the corner of Broad Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan. Frances Tavern a la réputation d'être le plus vieil immeuble de New York. Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York, J. F. Mines, "New York in the Revolution,", Alice Rogers Hager, "Washington in New York: Epochal Years,", "Extract of a letter dated New-York, June 24, 1776. Since the mid-19th century, there has been a dispute over Fraunces's racial identity. ", The tavern was used for more than entertainment during the Revolutionary War. Hickey was caught red-handed poisoning the general's food, and was court-martialed and hanged.. :38, Fraunces continued to operate the Queen's Head Tavern through the early years of the Revolutionary War, but fled when the British captured New York City in September 1776. And is it possible that the basement of Fraunces Tavern could have once housed a dungeon?  Rice suggests that confusion created by Thompson's name may have led Lossing – writing 84 years later – to misidentify Fraunces's daughter as Washington's housekeeper::149 n.26 At the time of Hickey's June 1776 hanging, Fraunces's eldest daughter, Elizabeth, was a 10-year-old child. Samuel Fraunces, in a portrait of the tavern owner painted between 1770-1785, giving little clue to what many consider to be his real racial identity. :Appendix 33–34 An engraving from the ink sketch was an illustration in Alice Morse Earle, Stagecoach and Tavern Days (1900), page 184. At various points in its history, Fraunces Tavern served as a headquarters for George Washington, a venue for peace negotiations with the British, and housing federal offices in the Early Republic.  According to his 1983 biographer, Kym S. Rice: "During the Revolutionary era, Fraunces was commonly referred to as 'Black Sam.' " Cheryl Janifer Laroche, a historian who worked on the 2007 President's House excavation in Philadelphia, noted conflicting stories depicting his family as both mulatto and white. ", and attributed to John Trumbull – descended in the Fraunces family. DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS Fraunces Tavern is a throa-story brick building with an attic with dormer windows. Washington made some excuse for sending the dish away, and Hickey was soon afterward arrested.  Fraunces later claimed that he used this as an opportunity to smuggle food to American prisoners, giving them clothing and money, and helping them to escape. Now under new management, you can expect a modern experience in an authentic historical space while enjoying great food, drinks, and atmosphere. It was chiefly on the testimony of this woman that Hickey was arrested, tried, and condemned. "Samuel Fraunces" (biographical sketch) in, "Memorial of Samuel Fraunces," March 5, 1785, "Memorials Addressed to Congress, 1775-88,".  Fraunces leased the property, opening it in 1767 as a summer resort: Vaux-Hall Pleasure Garden, (named for London's Vauxhall Gardens). , The year of his birth is computed from his October 13, 1795 obituary in the.  Hickey faced a court-martial at Richmond Hill on June 26, was found guilty of mutiny and sedition, and sentenced to death. This building is most famous as the site where, on December 4, 1783, George Washington gathered a group of his officers, nine days after the last of the British troops left American soil, to thank them for their service and bid them an emotional farewell before returning home. :27, The familiar oil-on-canvas portrait, long identified as depicting Samuel Fraunces and exhibited at Fraunces Tavern since 1913, was recently discredited by new evidence. Fraunces Tavern Block was designated a New York City Historic District in 1978. Our docent gave an excellent tour and identified important items that may have otherwise gone unnoticed. Samuel Fraunces (1722/23[note 1] – October 10, 1795) was an American restaurateur and the owner/operator of Fraunces Tavern in New York City. 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Taverne a continué de fonctionner au XIXe siècle, mais subit plusieurs incendies en 1832 at Peter! 2016, and the Poor a valuable friend. first President of Congress, April 17 August... To General Washington was present at a court-martial conducted at the end of the Chamber of and!